A Y U R V E D A
The human physiology is a product or expression of Nature. It is constructed by the infinite organising power of the Laws of Nature. Hence, all that is expressed in the human mind-body complex, including all structure and function, speech and action, is a reflection of the structural dynamics of the Laws of Nature. The laws that govern Nature are the very same laws that govern the life of man.
Health, however, is not merely a matter of the state of the body, since it is obvious that we are much more than just this material form. Any system of health that only takes into account the structure and functioning of the physical body cannot effectively address human health in its totality.
Ayurveda is not just a medicinal approach to health; rather it is a complete paradigm of life. It gives equal importance to the parts of life which are more subjective and intangible, and to those which are objective and material (those aspects that we can observe with our physical senses). It is a view of life which understands that the non-material components of our lives – our consciousness, mind, thoughts, feelings and emotions – animate and direct our more physical parts.
Based on this perspective, Ayurveda defines Ayu or Life as the intelligent co-ordination of the 4 parts of life, Atma (the Soul), Manas (the Mind), Indriyas (the Senses), and Sharira (the Body), with the totality of life. Each of these 4 aspects has specific functions which contribute to the wholeness that we experience as life. Ayurveda focuses on maintaining a balanced, integrated relationship among them.
Imbalance, whether physical, mental or emotional, arises when there is a disconnection between the subjective/non-physical and the objective/physical areas of life.
Ayurveda is based on the premise that the universe is made up of five elements: air, fire, water, earth and ether. These elements are represented in humans by three “doshas”, or energies: Vata, Pitta and Kapha. When any of the doshas accumulate in the body beyond the desirable limit, the body loses its balance. Every individual has a distinct balance, and our health and well-being depend on getting a right balance of the three doshas (“tridoshas”). Ayurveda suggests specific lifestyle and nutritional guidelines to help individuals reduce the excess dosha.
A healthy person, as defined in Sushrut Samhita, one of the primary works on Ayurveda, is “he whose doshas are in balance, appetite is good, all tissues of the body and all natural urges are functioning properly, and whose mind, body and spirit are cheerful…”
It focuses on establishing and maintaining balance of the life energies within us, rather than focusing on individual symptoms.
It recognizes the unique constitutional differences of all individuals and therefore recommends different regimens for different types of people. Although two people may appear to have the same outward symptoms, their energetic constitutions may be very different and therefore call for very different remedies.
Ayurveda is a complete medical system which recognizes that ultimately all intelligence and wisdom flows from one Absolute source (Paramatma). Health manifests by the grace of the Absolute, acting through the laws of Nature (Prakruti). Ayurveda assists Nature by promoting harmony between the individual and Nature by living a life of balance according to her laws.
Ayurveda describes three fundamental universal energies which regulate all natural processes on both the macrocosmic and microcosmic levels. That is, the same energies which produce effects in the various galaxies and star systems are operating at the level of the human physiology—in your own physiology. These three universal energies are known as the three doshas (Tridoshas).
The ancient Ayurvedic physicians realized the need for preserving the alliance of the mind and body and offers mankind tools for remembering and nurturing the subtler aspects of our humanity. Ayurveda seeks to heal the fragmentation and disorder of the mind-body complex and restore wholeness and harmony to all people.
What are Ayurvedic doshas?
Tridoshas are the three humors or forces of the body, which bring health when in balance, and produce diseases when out of balance. The three doshas are called Vata, Pitta and Kapha.
The doshas ensure that all mahabhutas are held together and exert their functions in synergism for the optimum function of the human body. These are forces or energies that work through the body to maintain homeostasis. 
Vata is the force that holds together Akasha and Vayu mahabhuta.
Pitta is the force that holds together Agni and Jala mahabhuta.
Kapha is the force that holds together Prithvi and Jala mahabhuta.
Vata makes sure that your body movements take place without obstructions. This includes absorption, cell ion exchange, nervous system conduction, all types of excretions, breathing and musculoskeletal functions.
Pitta has an equally important role in keeping together two very opposite qualities of fire and water. Like an acid, which are fluids in their existential state, but burn. Pitta governs this principle in the body. It brings about transformation, acts as the heat energy, digests food at gross and cellular levels. It imparts warmth, vision and colour to the body.
Kapha is the cohesive and lubricating force that holds together the opposing elements Jala and Prithvi. Imagine mixing stone and water. Kapha force makes the body stable, the structures well held with muscle, tendons, ligaments and fats. It also forms the protective coverings and fluid shock absorber for joints, brain (CSF) and spinal cord.
Characteristics Of Each Dosha Dominance
Bodies are dry, thin and they don’t sleep peacefully. They find difficulty in waking up fresh. Their gait is light, voice raspy, they are talkative and love to move about. They find it hard to stay at one place for long. They keep fidgeting with their fingers or shaking their legs without conscious attempts. Their bodies are wiry, lean and sinewy.
They are quick in action, almost jumpy and impulsive, abundant in energy, but tire quickly. Quick to like, quick to hate, quick learners but forget quickly too. They are intolerant to cold things and catch colds very frequently. They have thick, full, flowing hair that may be coarse and rough. Their skin is prone to dryness and needs regular moisturization.
They tend to have small meals throughout the day. Their joints may make noise (crepitus) on movement. Their day lacks routine and they often leave their tasks unfinished, because they simply love novelty and excitement.
Vatas are witty and make great orators, dancers, singers, artists, salesmen and are good at travelling jobs. They are good at maths, but pure vatas lack the patience for business. They make good analysts and statisticians. They get ideas and are very creative. They often find their money coming in quickly and also going out quickly too if not checked on impulsive habits.
They despise heat and all things hot. Their body is soft, muscular and when obese, is loose and flabby. Pitta put on weight easily and lose it quickly too. They have a keen digestion and are often gluttons. They have moderate sleep and wake up fresh and easily.
Their hair is fine and thin. Pittas have hair of lighter tinge (auburn and gold undertones) and are fair skinned. They are prone to freckles, heat boils, acne and plenty of moles. Their eyes are red tinged. Their nails and skins are soft and have a yellow or red undertone. They are quick to anger and impatience, but don't hold grudges for long.
They are sharp, intelligent, full of pride and love to show off. They have a sharp body smell, and their body fluids have a pungent odour. Their hunger and thirst are intense and they often enjoy big hearty meals. The age quicker than all other prakritis. Wrinkling of skin, baldness, graying have an earlier than normal onset in Pittas.
Pitta likes organizing, arranging, planning, scheming to make everything better. They are naturally competitive and often make very good leaders. Pittas are good teachers if they learn to be compassionate. They can be good in show business and are good at debates, politics and rights activism. They have a zest for life and often enjoy cooking and patronizing arts.
Kaphas have big broad bodies well covered with fat. Their hair skin and nails are well moisturized and seldom suffer from dryness. Their hair is often straight and deep black in colour. Their complexion can range from very dark skin tone to fair, but is always smooth and radiant.
Their bodies are strong and compact and are often lazy. Kaphas move with great difficulty, mentally and physically. They are strong in their convictions, get work done at their own pace with perfection. They have a stable gait and lack intense hunger and thirst.
They love routines, and can continue doing the same thing everyday meditatively. They have soft deep voices, which are pleasing and have a happy disposition. Kaphas can get ponderous and can suffer from procrastination. They can also get complacent. They are slow but firm.
Kaphas make excellent researchers, and thinkers. They are naturally intuitive and empathetic, thus make good doctors and psychiatrists. They are good at employing people and know how to manage resources. They take good business decisions, shoulder responsibility and see the task through to its completion. They make good long term investors.
These people have the air of vata and fire of Pitta. They love action in their lives. They are impulsive and like to say things out loud without much consideration of its implication.
They are fast paced, competitive, but often lack energy due to burn out. They love to try different cuisines and get bored easily. Vata-pittas are pure energies and when employed positively, can be very good at executing difficult tasks.
These people are always looking for a little more in their lives. If their energies are employed positively, the drive of pitta and patience of Kapha gives them rich dividends. But it can also lead to pride and contempt for others. Pitta and Kapha dominants should be watchful of their eating habits and weight.
These people are good at ideation and execution. They are very good at tasks that require profound (kapha ) knowledge and its deliverance (Vata). They are natural counsellors, for they understand human emotion, are empathetic and also have a way with words.
They are intelligent and also creative. Vata energies when balanced with Kapha makes one an excited but diligent worker.
Rare to find, but these people have the best of all the three doshas. Their bodies are balanced and free of diseases, if the doshas are maintained harmoniously with good lifestyle practices.
These prakriti people find it very hard to stay healthy. They always suffer from one ailment or another, and attain health with much difficulty, perhaps by following a stringent diet and lifestyle.
Tridosha Sites In Your Body
Broadly, Kapha is dominant in the chest, Pitta around the navel, and Vata below the navel.
The chest, heart, thymus (lymphatics) and stomach all are dominant in Kapha dosha. Small intestines, pancreas, liver and all the intestinal digestive glands are dominant in Pitta dosha. Bladder, uterus, ceacum, rectum and the bodily sphincters that open downward are all governed by Vata Dosha.